Industry 4.0 uses many technologies, such as smart sensors and IoT, to fundamentally improve manufacturing processes. These advanced tools can also be utilized by auditors for the purpose of achieving real-time auditing and monitoring, pushing the profession toward a new generation: “Audit 4.0.” Blockchains and smart contracts should be utilized to overcome new challenges in the transformation toward Audit 4.0. This paper explores the potential of blockchain and smart contracts to reengineer current audit procedures, thereby enabling Audit 4.0. First, this paper demonstrates a framework that summarizes where blockchain and smart contracts should be applied to help implement Audit 4.0. Then, it designs and implements a system to facilitate accountability audit for Chinese government officials regarding air pollution control. In this case, real air quality data are collected via crowdsourcing, verified and analyzed by blockchain and smart contracts to achieve a continuous audit of government officials' performance on air protection.

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