ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on various food contact surfaces at 10 and 22°C. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants at recommended concentrations and contact times for removing L. monocytogenes biofilm cells from a stainless steel surface covered with catfish mucus extract. Growth and biofilm formation of all L. monocytogenes strains increased with higher concentrations of catfish mucus extract at both 10 and 22°C. When 15 μg/mL catfish mucus extract was added to 3 log CFU/mL L. monocytogenes, the biofilm levels of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel reached 4 to 5 log CFU per coupon at 10°C and 5 to 6 log CFU per coupon at 22°C in 7 days. With 375 μg/mL catfish mucus extract, the biofilm levels of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel reached 5 to 6 log CFU per coupon at 10°C and 6 to 7.5 log CFU per coupon at 22°C in 7 days. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between L. monocytogenes strains tested for biofilm formation in catfish mucus extract on the stainless steel surface. The biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes catfish isolate HCC23 was lower on Buna-N rubber than on stainless steel, polyethylene, and polyurethane surfaces in the presence of catfish mucus extract (P < 0.05). Contact angle analysis and atomic force microscopy confirmed that Buna-N rubber was highly hydrophobic, with lower surface energy and less roughness than the other three surfaces. The complete reduction of L. monocytogenes biofilm cells was achieved on the stainless steel coupons with a mixture of disinfectants, such as quaternary ammonium compounds with hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid with hydrogen peroxide and octanoic acid at 25 or 50% of the recommended concentration, in 1 or 3 min compared with use of the quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorine, or acid disinfectants alone, which were ineffective for removing all the L. monocytogenes biofilm cells.

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