The bioactive compounds (total phenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids) and antioxidant activity of plum-based products (prunes, jams, and marmalade) were evaluated based on spectrophotometric assays and acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde concentrations to determine the quality and safety of these products in the Romanian marketplace. The total polyphenol concentrations in prunes, marmalade, and jams were 0.93 to 5.63 g of gallic acid equivalent per kg of dry matter, and the antioxidant activity was 3.0 to 17.2 mmol/kg. The concentrations of potentially harmful acrylamide in the plum products ranged from the limit of quantitation (<20 μg/kg) to 37.44 μg/kg, and the concentration was higher in prunes (26.66 to 163.72 μg/kg) than in jams. The 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde concentrations in plum products were also variable, at 36 to 2,149 mg/kg. These data revealed a very low concentration of acrylamide in thermally processed plum products, and the results for total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity of prunes and plum jams may be relevant for evaluating these products as important sources of bioactive compounds.