ABSTRACT

Antibiotic residues in consumer foods pose a threat to human health and contribute to increasing antimicrobial resistance. The study was conducted from January to July 2019 in six provinces in Vietnam. In total, 360 pork samples and 360 chicken samples were collected for analysis. The samples were first screened with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit for residues in the beta-lactam, tetracycline, and sulfonamide groups. All positive and suspected positive samples were confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to determine the concentration of ampicillin, amoxicillin, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline residues. The final confirmed result showed that 13 (3.6%), 99 (27.5%), and 16 (4.4%) chicken samples and 13 (3.6%), 29 (8.1%), and 29 (8.1%) pork samples were positive or suspected positive with beta-lactam, tetracycline, and sulfonamide residues, respectively. The liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method detected amoxicillin (8.1 to 151.6 ng/g), ampicillin (1.9 to 7.5 ng/g), doxycycline (1.1 to 491.1 ng/g), oxytetracycline (1.1 to 12.9 ng/g), sulfaquinoxaline (1.1 to 7.3 ng/g), and sulfamethazine (1.0 to 1,556.5 ng/g) in positive or suspected positive pork and chicken samples. Tetracycline (18%) was the most frequently found residue, followed by sulfonamide (6%). The proportion of chicken samples with a residue level higher than the maximum residue limit (3%) and the level of tetracycline residue were significantly higher than pork (1%). A significantly higher proportion of samples with residue levels higher than MRL (4%) and the highest levels of tetracycline residue were observed in north Vietnam. This data can help motivate decision-making toward lowering the use of antimicrobials in livestock and antibiotic residue in livestock products.

HIGHLIGHTS
  • Beta-lactam, tetracycline, and sulfonamide higher than the MRL were found in chicken and pork.

  • There was a higher proportion of chicken (12%) than pork (7%) with residue.

  • Higher proportion of tetracycline residue was found in chicken (28%), and sulfonamide residue in pork (8%).

  • Tetracycline (18%) was the most frequently found residue, followed by sulfonamide (6%).

  • Higher proportion of residue was found in north (12%) and south (11%) than in central (4%) Vietnam.

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