ABSTRACT

A total of 133 samples of whole wheat and barley grains and wheat and barley flour collected from retail markets in the main cities of Punjab, Pakistan, were analyzed for the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Of these samples, 120 (90%) were positive for FB1, and 75 (63%) of the 120 positive samples had FB1 concentrations higher than the European Union maximum (200 μg/kg). The limit of detection was 4 μg/kg. The highest mean (±SD) concentration of FB1 was found in whole wheat samples, 980.5 ± 211.4 μg/kg. The calculated dietary intakes of FB1 from wheat and barley flours were 4,456 and 503.7 ng/g of body weight per day, respectively.

HIGHLIGHTS
  • FB1 concentrations were determined for wheat and barley grain and flour samples.

  • The highest mean FB1 concentration was found in whole wheat samples, 980.5 ± 211.4 μg/kg.

  • About 63% of samples had FB1 concentrations higher than the recommended limit.

  • Dietary FB1 from wheat and barley flours were 4,456 and 503.7 ng/g of body weight per day, respectively.

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