ABSTRACT

In the present study, a risk assessment of pesticides, phthalates, and heavy metals in strawberries (n = 335) in recent years was conducted by determining the estimated daily intake, target hazard quotient, and hazard index. The study used 128 pesticides, 18 phthalates, and three heavy metals in this determination. It detected 51 pesticide residues in the strawberry samples, and 97.91% samples had levels of at least 1 of the 51 pesticides above the limit of detection. In addition, 2.39% of samples had pesticides higher than the Chinese maximum residue limit. Multiple pesticide residues were detected in most samples. Bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, and dibutyl phthalate were detected in the strawberry samples, with a high frequency of detection. Their detectable rates were 100, 100, and 89.9%, respectively. In most samples, lead, cadmium, and nickel were detected, with detectable rates 75.76, 92.93, and 92.93%, respectively. The estimated daily intake of analyzed pesticide, phthalate, and heavy metal residues appears to be relatively low compared with the acceptable daily intake. The average target hazard quotients and hazard indices were less than 1. That means that customers who are exposed to the average contaminant levels may not pose a significant health risk. Our results show that the strawberries may be polluted by many kinds of contaminants. Therefore, monitoring of pesticide, phthalate, and heavy metal residues in strawberries should be increasingly developed to fully protect the health of the consumer.

HIGHLIGHTS
  • 51 pesticide residues were found in the strawberry samples.

  • 2.39% of samples had pesticides higher than the MRL in the EU.

  • DEHP, DIBP, and DBP were detected frequently in strawberries.

  • In most samples, Pb, Cd, and Ni were detected.

  • Strawberries may be polluted by many kinds of contaminants.

You do not currently have access to this content.