ABSTRACT

Bacillus strain UTK D1-0055 was isolated from a laboratory environment and appeared to have antilisterial activity. The genome was sequenced, the strain was identified as Bacillus altitudinis, and a high-quality complete annotated genome was produced. The taxonomy was evaluated for this and related Bacillus species (B. aerophilus, B. pumilus, B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, and B. xiamenensis) because the taxonomy is unclear and contains errors in public databases such as NCBI. The included strains grouped into seven clusters based on average nucleotide identity. Strains designated as B. aerophilus, B. altitudinis, and B. stratosphericus grouped together in the cluster containing the B. altitudinis type strain, suggesting that these three species should be considered a single species, B. altitudinis. The antimicrobial activity of UTK D1-0055 was evaluated against a panel of 15 Listeria strains (nine Listeria monocytogenes serotypes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria marthii), other foodborne pathogens (six Salmonella enterica serotypes and Escherichia coli), and three representative fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Botrytis cinerea, and Hyperdermium pulvinatum). Antibacterial activity was observed against all Listeria strains, but no antibacterial effects were found against the other tested bacterial and fungal strains. Biosynthetic gene clusters were identified in silico that may be related to the observed antibacterial activity, and these clusters included genes that putatively encode bacteriocins and nonribosomally synthesized peptides. The B. altitudinis strain identified in this investigation had a broad range of antilisterial activity, suggesting that it and other related strains may be useful for biocontrol in the food industry.

HIGHLIGHTS
  • UTK D1-0055 was isolated and identified as a Bacillus altitudinis strain.

  • UTK D1-0055 inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species.

  • UTK D1-0055 and/or its antimicrobial products may have food safety applications.

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