ABSTRACT

Proteus mirabilis is abundant in soil and water. Although this bacterium is part of the normal human intestinal flora, it can cause serious infections in humans, including complicated urinary tract infections. This pathogen is also commonly associated with multidrug resistance. In the present study, analysis of 1,093 samples from foods of animal origin and animal intestinal samples recovered 232 P. mirabilis isolates identified by PCR assay. Of these 232 isolates, 72 produced β-lactamase (determined by both phenotypic and genotypic methods), with the highest prevalence in poultry cloacal swabs (11.82%) followed by mutton (9.18%), khoa (6.32%), pork (5.63%), pig rectal swabs (5.52%), beef (5.45%), and chicken (5.13%) but none from sheep rectal swabs and bovine rectal swabs. Among β-lactamase genes, blaTEM was the predominant gene detected (59 isolates) followed by blaOXA (11 isolates), blaSHV (5 isolates), blaFOX (5 isolates), blaCIT (4 isolates), blaCTX-M1 and blaCTX-M9 (2 isolates each) and blaCTX-M2, blaDHA, and blaEBC (1 isolate each). None of the isolates carried blaACC, blaMOX, or carbapenemase genes (blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC, and blaNDM-1). Dendrogram analysis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences obtained with PCR analysis of β-lactamase–producing isolates revealed 63 isolates, but 9 isolates did not yield bands. The analysis revealed that 6.58% of the samples had β-lactamase–producing P. mirabilis isolates that may affect food safety and contaminate the environment. Further genotyping revealed the genetic relationships between isolates of different origin. These findings emphasize the need for careful use of antibiotics to control the spread of β-lactamase–producing bacteria.

HIGHLIGHTS
  • Of 1,093 samples analyzed, 232 P. mirabilis isolates were recovered.

  • Phenotypic screening revealed 72 P. mirabilis isolates that produced β-lactamase.

  • All 72 isolates carried at least one β-lactamase gene.

  • None of the isolates carried blaAC, blaMOX, or carbapenemase genes.

  • Fingerprinting of these 72 isolates revealed genetic diversity between the strains.

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