Human noroviruses are enteric pathogens causing a substantial proportion of acute gastroenteritis cases worldwide, irrespective of background variables such as age, ethnicity or gender. Although person-to-person contact is the general route of transmission, foodborne infections are also common. Thorough cooking eliminates noroviruses, but several food products such as berries, leafy vegetables or mollusks undergo only limited heat treatment, if any, before consumption. Novel applications of nonthermal processing technologies are currently under vigorous research, as they can inactivate pathogens to varying degrees while also extending product shelf life with varying effects on nutrient content and perceived quality. These technologies, adopted from several industrial fields, include some methods already approved as food processing methods that have been applied in the food industry for years, even decades. However, a majority of the research has been conducted using bacteria and simple matrixes or surfaces. Hence, this review focuses on norovirus elimination in food matrixes by nonthermal technologies based on four distinctive categories; high hydrostatic pressure, light, irradiation and cold atmospheric plasma. We discuss the properties of norovirus, principles of the chosen technologies and their inactivation mechanisms and present main findings of relevant studies. Further, we provide an overview of the current status of the research and propose future directions for related work.

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