Foodborne antimicrobial resistant (AMR) microorganisms are a global food safety concern. Antimicrobial drug use (AMU) in livestock may increase the risk of resistant foodborne bacterial infections in humans via contaminated animal products. Consequently, countries have implemented different livestock AMU restriction policies, opening the potential for trade disputes. AMR risk equivalence between countries with different AMU policies must be established using scientifically justified risk assessments. The Codex Alimentarius Commission’s Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR Codex) recommends an approach that requires quantification of detailed information, for which, in many instances, little to no data exists. Using AMR Salmonella exposure from beef consumption as an example, we demonstrate the difficulty of implementing the AMR Codex by comparing key regionally specific parameters within the United States and European Union, two regions with substantial beef production and consumption, robust foodborne pathogen sampling and surveillance systems, and different AMU policies. Currently, neither region fully captures data for key regional variables to populate a detailed risk assessment as outlined in the AMR Codex, nor are they able to adequately link AMU in livestock to AMR infections in humans. Therefore, the AMR Codex guidelines are currently aspirational and not a viable option to assess the impact of livestock AMU reductions on the human health risk of AMR Salmonellosis from beef, nor produce regionally comparable estimates of risk. More flexible risk assessment guidelines that more directly link livestock AMU to human health risk and that is amenable to currently available data is needed to allow for country variations and to calculate comparable regional risk estimates, which can be used to guide international trade policy.

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