Research on C. botulinum is proceeding throughout the world at a pace never before equalled, with greatest emphasis on type E. It is now clear that this organism is widley distributed in the aquatic environment and may be a frequent contaminant of fish and other marine animals. Much is still to be learned about its ecology and why it occurs in higher concentrations in some environments than in others. Although a large body of information has accumulated about the organism's characteristics, there is still much to be done before the public can be protected with certainty against further outbreaks.

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Author notes

1Presented at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the International Assoociation of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc., at Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 15–18, 1966.