This paper, the third of four, discusses the ripening and flavor production processes of Swiss cheese. First, general ripening changes are reviewed; then, a discussion of eye formation and body and texture changes follows. The important flavor compounds found in Swiss cheese are examined in detail beginning with consideration of the analytical methods used to isolate and measure fatty acids. The different volatile and nonvolatile fatty acids and their importance in Swiss cheese are considered, as well as production of propionic and acetic acids from lactate, production of keto acids, and lipolysis. Then, analyses for and significance of carbonyl compounds, alcohols, esters, lactones, hydrocarbons, and diacetyl are presented. Possibilities for production of these compounds by microorganisms are given. Subsequent sections deal with nitrogeneous compounds, degradation of caseins to peptides and amino acids and their importance to flavor, and end with a review of sulfur compounds present.

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Author notes

1Journal Paper No. J-7505 of the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa. Project No. 1839.

2This review is appearing in four parts: I. Milk Quality and Treatments and II. Starters, Manufacturing Processes and Procedures appeared in earlier issues; IV. Defects will appear in a subsequent issue. Literature citations will follow part IV.