The rubratoxins, toxic metabolites elaborated by Penicillium rubrum and Penicillium purpurogenum, have long been implicated in livestock disease. Because of this and renewed interest in these metabolites, this review was prepared. The following topics are discussed: rubratoxin occurrence; animal and microbial toxicity; morphology; isolation, identification and analysis; physical and chemical properties; new analytical methodologies; biosynthesis and toxin synthesis under controlled conditions.

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1 Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Article No. 9259.