Frankfurters of twelve treatment combinations were made using a conventional manufacturing procedure. Manufacturing treatments included formulations of either 60% pork/40% beef, 100% mechanically deboned chicken (MDC) or 100% mechanically deboned turkey (MDT); sodium nitrite levels of 0 or 50 ppm; and sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) levels of 0 or 3,750 ppm. Finished frankfurters were either not irradiated or irradiated at temperatures of either −34.4 or −51.1°C and at a dose level of 0.8 or 3.2 Mrad. Addition of SAPP did not significantly affect external or internal color, off-flavor incidence or overall palatability of any of the frankfurters but significantly increased processing shrinkage for pork/beef and chicken franks, decreased frankfurter pH values for pork/beef and chicken franks and improved texture of pork/beef, chicken and turkey franks. Addition of 50 ppm nitrite, as compared to use of no nitrite, significantly decreased processing shrinkage of turkey franks, increased batter and frankfurter pH of pork/beef franks, increased consumer cooking loss of chicken franks but decreased consumer cooking loss of turkey franks, decreased off-flavor of pork/beef, chicken and turkey franks, and improved internal color of pork/beef, chicken and turkey franks. An irradiation temperature of −51.1°C as compared with −34.4°C, decreased off-flavor intensity and increased palatability of pork/beef franks but did not affect other properties of pork/beef franks or any of the properties of chicken or turkey franks. Franks irradiated with 0.8 Mrad differed (P<0.05) from those that were not irradiated in only 3 of 18 sensory traits (including overall palatability of pork/beef franks); franks irradiated with 3.2 Mrad differed (P<0.05) from those which were not irradiated in 8 of 18 sensory traits (including overall palatability of pork/beef, chicken and turkey franks).

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Author notes

1Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University.

2U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command.