Bottled wines, ciders and perries that contain sugar are susceptible to refermentation by yeasts and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The yeasts are strongly fermentative strains, often species of Saccharomyces, while the lactics are acid and ethanol tolerant species that grow slowly and are fastidious in their nutrient requirements. Spoilage is manifested by gas, haze and various flavor changes. Control procedures include filtration, pasteurization and the use of the preservatives sulfur dioxide and sorbic acid.

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