Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis processes can be useful in the dairy foods industry. When milk is processed, milk fat and casein are rejected fully (e.g., are in retentate) and thus are concentrated by ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Lactic cultures are slow to reduce the pH of retentate because of its increased buffering capacity since concentrated calcium phosphate and proteins are present. Conditions for growth of pathogenic microorganisms and inhibition of such bacteria in ultrafiltered milk differ from those of unfiltered milk. The principal advantage of using ultrafiltered milk for conversion into such cheeses as Cheddar, cottage, Havarti, Feta, brick, Colby, and Domiati is an increase in yield of product. Additional benefits claimed for use of ultrafiltered milk in cheese making include reduction in costs of energy, equipment, and labor; improved consistency of cheese flavor; and possible production of new byproducts.

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