A state department of health reported an increase in cases of human salmonellosis and found an association (odds ratio 20; 95% confidence interval 4 to 131) between Lebanon bologna consumption and 26 confirmed cases of Salmonella typhimurium. Based on this evidence, the manufacturer initiated a voluntary recall of product in commercial channels and added additional safety measures to their manufacturing processes. The USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service promptly issued a public notification to consumers stating that the suspected product should be returned to the place of purchase. A team of federal investigators concluded that at the time of the outbreak S. typhimurium may have survived the process used by the manufacturer if present in high numbers in raw beef (greater than 104/g). Additionally, the investigators concluded that other manufacturers of similar product needed to add controls to their processes used to manufacture a semi-dry fermented sausage in order to ensure the safety of the final product.

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