Thirteen Lactobacillus and five Pediococcus strains were shown to produce an antimicrobial agent, 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid (PCA). PCA inhibited many spoilage bacteria, particularly Enterobacter cloacae 1575, Pseudomonas fluorescens KJLG, and P. putida 1560-2. The antimicrobial activity of PCA did not change at higher temperatures. However, the activity was destroyed rapidly by neutralization with ammonium hydroxide. PCA showed slightly lower antimicrobial activity than lactic acid.

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