A total of 4,581 Salmonella strains isolated from nonhuman sources, including foodstuffs associated with foodborne Salmonella outbreaks, from January 1996 through December 2000 were serotyped at the Enteropathogens Laboratory, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil. Among the 123 different serotypes identified, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) was the most prevalent (32.7%), ranking first for almost every kind of source. The next most common serotypes were Salmonella Senftenberg (10.3%), Salmonella Hadar (6.8%), Salmonella Agona (5.1%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (2.4%). Rough strains belonging to the subspecies S. enterica subsp. enterica (4.8%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae (<1%), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (<1%), and S. enterica subsp. houtenae (<1%) were also detected. Foodstuffs (including poultry meat for consumption) contained 38.1% of the studied Salmonella strains, poultry flocks (from several farms under salmonellosis control by the owners) contained 21.7%, the environment contained 10.6%, sewage contained 9.4%, water contained 6.6%, animal feed contained 4.4%, chill water from poultry-processing operations contained 2.2%, and other sources contained 7.0%. Foodstuffs extensively contaminated with Salmonella strains were poultry meat (40%), cow meat (11%), desserts (8%), mayonnaise (6%), sausage (5%), and unpasteurized shell eggs (4%), and there were several other food sources (26%). Homemade mayonnaise was the most common vehicle for Salmonella foodborne outbreaks, and Salmonella Enteritidis was the serotype most isolated (95%) from that source. According to these data and previously published data concerning Salmonella strains isolated in São Paulo State, almost the same serotypes have predominated among nonhuman sources for the last decade.

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