The heat resistance of various yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii), molds (Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium roquefortii, and Aspergillus niger), and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum) obtained from spoiled acid or acidified food products was determined in 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH values of 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. S. cerevisiae was the most heat resistant of the microorganisms in citrate buffer, and its heat resistance was further evaluated in apple, grapefruit, calcium-fortified apple, and tomato juices as well as in a juice base with high fructose corn syrup. Decimal reduction times (D-values) and changes in temperature required to change the D-value (z-values) for S. cerevisiae were higher in the juices than in citrate buffer at all pH values tested. The D57°C(135°F)-values varied from 9.4 min in the juice product with pH 2.8 to 32 min in a calcium-added apple juice with pH 3.9. The S. cerevisiae strain used in this study can be used in thermal-death-time experiments in acidic products to calculate process conditions and in challenge tests to validate the calculated temperatures and hold times during processing.
†Present address: University of Delaware, Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Newark, DE 19717, USA.
‡Present address: General Mills, James Ford Bell Technical Center, 9000 Plymouth Avenue North, Minneapolis, MN 55427-3899, USA.