Protozoan parasites can survive under ambient and refrigerated storage conditions when associated with a range of substrates. Consequently, various treatments have been used to inactivate protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Cyclospora) in food, water, and environmental systems. Physical treatments that affect survival or removal of protozoan parasites include freezing, heating, filtration, sedimentation, UV light, irradiation, high pressure, and ultrasound. Ozone is a more effective chemical disinfectant than chlorine or chlorine dioxide for inactivation of protozoan parasites in water systems. However, sequential inactivation treatments can optimize existing treatments through synergistic effects. Careful selection of methods to evaluate inactivation treatments is needed because many studies that have employed vital dye stains and in vitro excystation have produced underestimations of the effectiveness of these treatments.

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