Consumption of foods high in biogenic amines leads to an illness known as histamine, or scombrotoxin, poisoning. The illness is commonly associated with consumption of fish with high levels of histamine (≥500 ppm). The objective of this study was to determine and compare the heat resistance of five histamine-producing bacteria in irradiated albacore tuna loins. Heat-resistance parameters (D- and z-values) were determined for Morganella morganii, Raoultella planticola, Hafnia alvei, and Enterobacter aerogenes. D- or z-values were not determined for Photobacterium damselae, which was the most heat-sensitive organism in this study. P. damselae declined >5.9 log CFU/g after a heat treatment of 50°C for 10 min, 54°C for 3 min, and 56°C for 0.5 min. M. morganii was the most heat-resistant histamine-producing bacteria in albacore tuna loins, followed by E. aerogenes, H. alvei, and R. planticola. M. morganii and E. aerogenes had the highest D50°C, 49.7 ± 17.57 and 51.8 ±17.38 min, respectively. In addition, M. morganii had the highest D-values for all other temperatures (54, 56, and 58°C) tested. D- and z-values were also determined for M. morganii in skipjack tuna. While no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between D54°C and D56°C of M. morganii in either albacore or skipjack tuna, the D58°C (0.4 ± 0.17 min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in skipjack than in albacore (0.9 ± 0.24 min). The z-values for all organisms tested were in the range of 3.2 to 3.8°C. This study suggests that heat treatment designed to control M. morganii in tuna loins is sufficient for controlling histamine-producing bacteria in canned-tuna processing environments.
Heat Resistance of Histamine-Producing Bacteria in Irradiated Tuna Loins
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ELENA ENACHE, AI KATAOKA, D. GLENN BLACK, LISA WEDDIG, MELINDA HAYMAN, KRISTIN BJORNSDOTTIR-BUTLER; Heat Resistance of Histamine-Producing Bacteria in Irradiated Tuna Loins. J Food Prot 1 September 2013; 76 (9): 1608–1614. doi: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-467
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