Listeria monocytogenes is a potential hazard for food safety and therefore public health. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in Polish ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products in retail. Among the 184 439 food samples collected within the framework of national official control and monitoring program only 0.3% were positive for L. monocytogenes. A significant group of products that did not meet the criteria were RTE meat products. This group accounted for 40% of all non compliant samples. A total of 70 L. monocytogenes isolates from RTE meat products (meat, sausages and delicatessen products with meat) were examined. The majority of the tested isolates (51%) belonged to serogroup 1/2a-3a, followed by 1/2c-3c (21%), 1/2b-3b-7 (14%) and 4ab-4b-4d-4e (13%). Serogroup 4a-4c was not present among the tested isolates. All L. monocytogenes isolates harbored the virulence-associated genes inlA, inlC, inlJ and lmo2672 . The llsX marker was detected in twelve of 70 (17%) isolates. Ampicillin resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 83% of L. monocytogenes isolates. A low incidence of resistance to amoxicillin/clavunate acid (6% isolates) was also detected. All L. monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline and erythromycin. This work provides useful information regarding contamination of RTE meat products with L. monocytogenes, which may have implications for food safety risk.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in poultry, pork, and beef meat at the retail level and to identify the main categories of meat representing the most significant reservoirs of Campylobacter . A monitoring study was conducted throughout Poland from 2009 to 2013. A total of 1,700 fresh meat samples were collected from supermarkets, large retail outlets, and smaller stores. Thermophilic Campylobacter species were detected in 690 (49.3%) of 1,400 poultry samples collected from retail trade. Strains were isolated from 50.2 and 41.1% of raw chicken and turkey meat samples, respectively, and from 50.1 and 42.6% of raw chicken and turkey giblets. The incidence of Campylobacter spp. on pork (10.6%) and beef (10.1%) was significantly lower than on poultry. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species in chicken (46.6%), pork (68.6%), and beef (66.7%), and Campylobacter coli was the most frequently isolated Campylobacter species in turkey meat (71.2%). This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with Campylobacter ; however, the prevalence of these pathogens is markedly different in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting foodborne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis critical control point programs and consumer food safety education efforts.
In 2007 and 2008, a monitoring study was carried out in Poland to examine the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in raw and cooked chicken products available on the retail market. A total of 912 samples were tested: 443 samples of raw chicken meat, 146 samples of giblets, and 323 ready-to-eat poultry products (150 samples of spit-roasted chicken, 56 samples of smoked chicken, and 117 samples of pâté and cold meats). A high level of contamination of raw chicken meat (51.7% of samples) and chicken giblets (47.3% of samples) was detected. However, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were found in only 1.2% of the ready-to-eat poultry products.