A survey of contamination with Salmonella was done in the breeder/multiplier and broiler houses, feed mills, hatcheries, and processing plants of two integrated broiler firms. Samples of insects and mice were also collected at each location. Sixty percent (60%) of the meat and bone meal samples collected at feed mills were contaminated. Salmonella was isolated from 35% of the mash feed samples tested. The pelleting process reduced Salmonella isolation rates by 82.0%. Data collected from breeder/multiplier houses suggested that feed was the ultimate source of Salmonella contamination in that environment. Salmonella was found in 9.4% of the yolk sac samples collected from day-old chicks in hatcheries. Fecal dropping samples collected in broiler houses about one week prior to slaughter were contaminated at a rate of 5.2%. Salmonella was found in 33% of the samples collected from live haul trucks and 21.4% of the whole processed broiler carcasses sampled at processing plants. Salmonella typhimurium was the serotype most commonly isolated. The gastrointestinal tract of one of 19 mice sampled was contaminated with Salmonella . Data suggest that insects were primarily mechanical carriers. Results suggest Salmonella contamination in the U.S. broiler production and processing system has changed little since 1969. The data also underline the contention that effective Salmonella control efforts must be comprehensive.
Numbers and types of microorganisms in retail pasteurized fluid milk products were determined as well as the effect that type of product, brand, and season of the year had on counts of 13 different microbial types. Clostridium perfringens was the only pathogen detected and it averaged less than one organism per milliliter. Chocolate milk samples generally had the highest mean counts, followed by skim milk, low-fat (2%), and whole milk (3.25%). Most brands had means for the various microbial counts which were not significantly different from each other. Only three brands had counts which differed significantly from other brands. Psychrotrophic, coliform, staphylococcal, yeast and mold, and Standard Plate Counts were highest between May and October, while counts for spores, streptococci, and thermophiles were highest between December and March. No seasonal trends were detected for counts of anaerobes, C. perfringens , enterococci, or lactobacilli.