ABSTRACT Campylobacter is an organism of concern for food safety and is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. This pathogen can be found in broiler chickens, and the level of allowable contamination of processed poultry is regulated by federal agency guidelines. Traditional methods for detecting and isolating this pathogen from broiler chicken carcasses require time, expensive reagents, and artificially generated microaerophilic atmospheres. An aerobic medium that simplifies the procedure and reduces the expense of culturing Campylobacter has been recently described, and Campylobacter can be grown in this medium in containers that are incubated aerobically. Hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) has been proposed for early and rapid detection of pathogens at the cellular level. The objective of the present study was to utilize HMI to compare differences between Campylobacter cultures grown under artificially produced microaerobic atmospheres and cultures grown in aerobic medium. Hyperspectral microscopic images of three C ampylobacter strains were collected cultures grown for 48 h microaerophilically and for 24 and 48 h aerobically, and a quadratic discriminant analysis was used to characterize the bacterial variability. Microaerobically cultured bacteria were detected with 98.7% accuracy, whereas detection accuracy of cultures grown in the novel medium was slightly reduced (−4.8 and −3.2% for 24 and 48 h, respectfully). The Mahalanobis distance multivariate metric was applied to quantify strain variability under all three treatment conditions. Across all strains and treatments, little cluster variation was present (4.22 to 4.42), indicating the consistency of the images collected from the three strains. The classification and spectral consistency was similar for cultures incubated in the aerobic medium for 24 h and cultures grown for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. HIGHLIGHTS HMI was used to classify three Campylobacter strains at the cellular level. Detection accuracy was 98.72% on microaerophilic growth medium. Classification accuracies for aerobic cultures in the novel medium were similar to those for traditional cultures. The use of HMI reduced the time investment and user bias associated with hypercube processing.
This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, and Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunable filter hyperspectral microscope imaging system with a metal halide light source measuring 89 contiguous wavelengths every 4 nm between 450 and 800 nm. Pearson correlation values were calculated for incubation times of 8, 10, and 12 h and compared with data for 24 h to evaluate the change in spectral signatures from bacterial cells over time. Regions of interest were analyzed at 30% of the pixels in an average cell size. Spectral data were preprocessed by applying a global data transformation algorithm and then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The Mahalanobis distance was calculated from PCA score plots for analyzing serotype cluster separation. Partial least-squares regression was applied for calibration and validation of the model, and soft independent modeling of class analogy was utilized to classify serotype clusters in the training set. Pearson correlation values indicate very similar spectral patterns for reduced incubation times ranging from 0.9869 to 0.9990. PCA score plots indicated cluster separation at all incubation times, with incubation time Mahalanobis distances of 2.146 to 27.071. Partial least-squares regression had a maximum root mean squared error of calibration of 0.0025 and a root mean squared error of validation of 0.0030. Soft independent modeling of class analogy correctly classified values at 8 h (98.32%), 10 h (96.67%), 12 h (88.33%), and 24 h (98.67%) with the optimal number of principal components (four or five). The results of this study suggest that Salmonella serotypes can be classified by applying a PCA to hyperspectral microscope imaging data from samples after only 8 h of incubation.