There is growing interest in the use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as a management tool for controlling invasive fishes. However, there is limited published data on susceptibility of many commonly encountered species to elevated CO 2 concentrations. Our objective was to estimate the 24-h LC 50 and LC 95 of four fishes (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss , Common Carp Cyprinus carpio , Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus , and Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi ). In the laboratory, we exposed juvenile fish to a range of CO 2 concentrations for 24-h in unpressurized, flow-through tanks. A Bayesian hierarchical model was developed to estimate the dose response relationship for each fish species with associated uncertainty, and 24-h LC 50 and LC 95 values were estimated based on laboratory trials for each species. The minimum concentration inducing mortality differed among cold water-adapted species and warm water-adapted species groups: 150 mg CO 2 /L for Westslope Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout and 225 mg CO 2 /L for Common Carp and Channel Catfish. We observed complete mortality at 275 mg CO 2 /L (38,672 µatm), 225 mg CO 2 /L (30,711 µatm), and 495 mg CO 2 /L (65,708 µatm (CC); 77,213 µatm (CF)) for Westslope Cutthroat Trout, Rainbow Trout, and both Common Carp and Channel Catfish, respectively. There was evidence of a statistical difference between the LC 95 values of Westslope Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout (245.0 ( 222.2 to 272.2 ) and 190.6 ( 177.2 to 207.8 ) mg CO 2 /L, respectively). Additionally, these values were almost half the estimated 24-h LC 95 s for Common Carp and Channel Catfish (422.5 ( 374.7 to 474.5 ) and 434.2 ( 377.2 to 492.2 ) mg CO 2 /L, respectively). Although the experimental findings show strong relationships between increased CO 2 concentration and higher mortality, additional work is needed to assess the efficacy and feasibility of a CO 2 application in a field setting.
Carbon dioxide-induced mortality of four species of North American fishes
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Hilary B. Treanor, Andrew Ray, Jon Amberg, Mark Gaikowski, Jason Ilgen, Robert Gresswell, Leslie Gains-Germaine, Molly Webb; Carbon dioxide-induced mortality of four species of North American fishes. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management doi: https://doi.org/10.3996/JFWM-20-012
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