Nonnative fish eradication via the piscicide rotenone is an effective tool for fisheries management and conservation of native species. However, the long-term effects on non-target organisms, including benthic invertebrates and zooplankton in alpine lakes, are under-studied and are poorly understood. As part of a landscape-scale native fish conservation project, we assessed the effects of 50 ppb rotenone on the aquatic invertebrate community by comparing pre- and post-rotenone treatment density and diversity metrics of benthic invertebrates and zooplankton in 13 alpine lakes and their outlets in Montana, USA. Across study sites, decreases in density and diversity of some invertebrates, including Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa, were observed the year following rotenone treatment, and within three years, densities and diversities were similar to and sometimes higher than pre-treatment values. These results demonstrate resilience of aquatic invertebrate communities following rotenone exposure in alpine lakes and streams and informs fisheries managers for planning rotenone projects and monitoring recovery of non-target organisms. Further studies will be useful to evaluate the mechanisms driving invertebrate recovery rates, including downstream drift from nontreated areas and terrestrial adult dispersal.

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