Earthen materials and rammed earth architecture concepts are becoming more and more popular among architects due to their applicability in various climates and low-cost construction technique. However, the use of flat earthen roofs in today’s architecture is rare, although there is historical evidence for the vernacular use of earthen materials in roof assemblies. The first examples for vernacular earthen flat roofs are found in Anatolia, Catalhoyuk. Flat earthen roofs used in vernacular, Anatolian buildings should be studied because a lack of maintenance has resulted in these vernacular Anatolian earthen buildings being on the verge of extinction today. There is a lack of literature research about the construction materials and techniques used in this traditional construction process. The aim of this study is to compile and present the knowledge behind this traditional flat earthen roof technique. In this study, initially, the flat earthen roofs used in vernacular Anatolian Architecture are analyzed via an extensive literature review. It has been found that in different districts of Anatolia, different types of vernacular flat earthen roofs together with different material layers and construction techniques exist. Site studies were carried out in Kemaliye.* During these site studies, six flat earthen roofs present in Kemaliye and in neighboring towns constructed via traditional construction techniques were analyzed and interviews were carried out with seven local foremen. Then, based on the information gathered, these traditional flat earthen roofs were classified into four types according to their material layers and construction techniques. Finally, preservation problems for flat earthen roofs are discussed.