Billions of gallons of water are used annually to flush toilets in the United States. Consequences of this usage include consumption of natural resources and construction of new infrastructure to treat and transmit potable water and wastewater. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor control problems, and rejection by code officials.
As urine is about 96% liquid, no additional water is really needed to wash it down the drain. The waterless, urinal, looking much like its conventional counterpart, takes advantage of this concept with generally positive results.
This paper will discuss the design, applications, operation, maintenance, advantages, and disadvantages of waterless urinals. The results of two surveys of current users will be shared. A case study from a Texas school district will be also presented.