Historically, wetland toxin exposure studies have relied on single time point samples from stationary sampling devices. Development of passive sampling devices (PSDs) that can be attached to individual animals within wetland habitats has greatly improved in recent years, presenting an innovative sampling technology that can potentially yield individual-specific, quantifiable data about chemical exposure. In this study, silicone based PSDs were attached to the ventral skin of 20 northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) with polypropylene sutures after radiotransmitters had been surgically implanted into the coleomic cavity. After a short recovery period, frogs were released back into the wetland habitat where they were acquired. The animals were located daily using radiotelemetry to assess how long PSDs would remain attached in the frogs' natural habitat. After one week, PSDs remained on 18 of the original 20 frogs. At two weeks, 17 frogs were recovered and no PSDs remained attached. Although valuable data can be obtained over a short time period, more research will be necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of externally attaching silicone PSDs to northern leopard frogs for time periods longer than 1–2 weeks.

You do not currently have access to this content.