A produce distribution survey was conducted to develop a calculated risk approach to packaging systems design. A database for simulating shock and vibration inputs was derived from two instrumented surveys of typical transport routes of apples and citrus fruit. These comprised spectral envelopes encompassing different truck types and road conditions, and a ship voyage from Haifa port in Israel to Marseille, France.

Intermittent transient accelerations were segregated from continuous steady-state vibration records and presented separately as Fourier spectrum envelopes. Handling shocks sustained by pallet loads during forklift loading and unloading are also reported.

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