The release of toxins occurs from a multitude of sources both with and without air pollution control. These sources have become of more concern. The value of pollution control for toxicants can be addressed from a risk benefit methodology. The risks can be estimated from the Air Emission Risk Assessment Model (AERAM), a computerized methodology developed by EPRI for the electric utility industry, used to assess cost-benefit trade-offs for various control techologies. This methodology considers particle-size class emissions, dispersion, and health impacts, and has been used to evaluate trade-offs for fuel switching at a coal-fueled electric-power generating station in the Northeastern United States.

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