The appropriate analytical technique to characterize contamination requires the correct measurement instrument, together with careful experimental design and data analysis to eliminate random and systematic errors. When selecting the analytical technique for a specific application, it is important to recognize the advantages and limitations of the technique. This paper reviews common analytical techniques to monitor the purity of cleaning chemicals, solvents, and water; cleanroom environment and components; wafer boxes; and wafers. The techniques described are wet chemical analytical methods and microanalytical methods.

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