NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the “Great Observatories,” scheduled for launch in 2021. NASA is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that culminated in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describes the upgrades to the Chamber A facility: Thermal Shrouds, Helium Refrigeration, Liquid Nitrogen System, High Vacuum System, Clean Airflow System, and Utilities.

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