This article describes and analyzes the debate about inclusion against the backdrop of school reform in Germany. The tiered school system has caused significant controversies during the past decades and underwent changes that often yielded ambiguous results with regards to social and educational justice. Another major change of the system is now demanded by proponents of full inclusion, using the United Nations 'Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities' (UN CRPD) as moral and legal justification. However, the very high hopes aroused by the envisaged systemic overhaul may result in disappointment. Educating all children with and without disabilities together in a “school for all” may not be the best way to achieve social justice. There are other, more significant factors contributing to this quest than the structure of a school system. Different structures make it possible that every child receives the learning and developmental conditions which she needs.

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