Although the Chinese have been exposed to Western psychotherapies since the 1950s, the practice of counseling is a relatively new phenomenon. In this article, we trace the development of counseling in China, examine its cultural and practical relevance, and review recent advances in training and practice. Although heavily influenced by Western models, contemporary Chinese approaches to counseling reflect the philosophical traditions, cultural history, and indigenous help-seeking practices of a rapidly modernizing society. The increasing popularization of psychotherapy in China is analyzed in the context of the changing social and economic climate and the crises and opportunities that accompany Chinese life in the 21st century.

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