In this phenomenological study 11 Native American elders addressed three research questions: (a) the effect of historical trauma on self, family, and community; (b) how historical trauma currently affects Native people and their communities; and (c) what they would recommend that counselors and therapists do in addressing issues of historical trauma for Native and tribal people. All participants spoke of historical trauma in terms of loss of tribal language and culture. They seemed to speak directly to Native people themselves as having the answers to healing and wellness for their own people; however, recommendations for nontribal people who work with Native people and communities were discussed.

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