Research is beginning to offer new insights into the physiological mechanisms that underlie the complexities of major depressive disorder (MDD). Additionally, several lines of research have begun to link stress and inflammation to symptoms of depression (Lotrich, 2015; Slavich & Irwin, 2014). This manuscript will summarize the existing literature from medicine, public health, and neuroscience to review the neural, physiological, and molecular pathways that underlie the relationship between stress, inflammation, and depressive symptoms. Implications for counseling will be discussed.

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