Neurofeedback has been found to be effective in the treatment of a number of clinical disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) ( Lubar, 2003 ), obsessive-compulsive disorder ( Hammond, 2003 ), seizures ( Sterman, 2000 ), and substance abuse ( Burkett, Cummins, Dickson, & Skolnick, 2005 ; Saxby & Peniston, 1995 ). The benefits of neurofeedback have also been found useful in peak performance training. These benefits include improving attention/concentration, imagery, arousal level, and decreasing worry and rumination ( Williams, 2006 ). The combination of cognitive, emotional, and psychophysiological benefits from neurofeedback results in improved performance. Due to individual differences in brain activity, as well as the large diversity of skills required in different sports, neurofeedback for performance training is not a “one size fits all” approach ( Wilson, Thompson, Thompson, & Peper, 2011 ). In order to obtain optimal results, neurofeedback for peak performance training begins with appropriate assessment and evaluation of an individual's brain wave (electroencephalographic) activity. Individualized training plans are based upon the assessment findings and the specific needs of the targeted sport or activity ( Wilson et al., 2011 ). This article will discuss the benefits and applications of neurofeedback for peak performance training and the importance of assessment to create effective training programs.