The purpose of this study was to determine the possible deleterious effects of e-cigarette vapor on osteoblast interaction with dental implant material. Osteoblasts were cultured onto Ti6Al4V titanium implant disks and were then exposed or not to whole cigarette smoke (CS), as well as to nicotine-rich (NR) or nicotine-free (NF) e-vapor for 15 or 30 minutes once a day for 1, 2, or 3 days, after which time various analyses were performed. Osteoblast growth on the titanium implant disks was found to be significantly (P < .001) reduced following exposure to CS and to the NR and NF e-vapors. Osteoblast attachment to the dental implant material was also dysregulated by CS and the NR and NF e-vapors through a decreased production of adhesion proteins such as F-actin. The effects of CS and e-cigarette vapor on osteoblast growth and attachment were confirmed by reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and tissue mineralization. The adverse effects of CS and the NR and NF e-vapors on osteoblast interaction with dental implant material also involved the caspase-3 pathway, as the caspase-3 protein level increased following exposure of the osteoblasts to CS or e-vapor. It should be noted that the adverse effects of CS on osteoblast growth, attachment, ALP, and mineralized degradation were greater than those of the NR and NF e-vapors, although the latter did downregulate osteoblast interaction with the dental implant material. Overall results suggest the need to consider e-cigarettes as a possible contributor to dental implant failure and/or complications.

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