This study sought to assess microbial leakage through the implant-healing abutment interface in 4 dental implant connection systems. Ten implants of each of the 3i (double hexagon + flat to flat; group 1), IDI (internal hexagon + Morse taper; group 2), Swiss Plus (external bevel + internal octagon; group 3), and Tapered Screw-Vent (internal bevel + internal hexagon; group 4) systems were used in this in vitro, experimental study. Healing abutments were screwed to the implants with 10 Ncm torque. Implants were immersed in Escherichia coli suspension for 24 hours. Samples were taken of the internal surface of implants and cultured. The number of grown colonies was counted after 24 hours of culture and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in microbial suspension. The same was repeated with healing abutments torqued to 10 and 20 Ncm. With 10 Ncm torque, all specimens in all groups showed microleakage at one day with the highest microleakage in one sample in group 3. At 7 days, the highest microleakage was noted in one specimen in group 2. With 20 Ncm torque, group 3 showed significantly higher microleakage than other groups at 1 and 7 days (P < .05). Increasing the torque decreased microleakage in all groups except for group 3. Microbial leakage occurred in almost all implant systems in our study. In one-stage implant placement, healing abutments should be preferably torqued to 20 Ncm to minimize microleakage. Optimal torque for healing abutment insertion should be analyzed individually for each system.

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