The researchers investigated the influence of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on implant stability and marginal bone of small-diameter implants retaining mandibular overdentures in patients with moderately controlled diabetes. Twenty patients (mean age = 59.32 ± 4.1 years) with moderately controlled diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] = 8.1%–10.0 %) were rehabilitated by maxillary and mandibular conventional dentures. Two small-diameter implants (3 × 12 mm) were inserted in the canine areas of the mandible and immediately loaded by mandibular dentures. In a split-mouth design, LLLI was applied to 1 of the 2 implants in a random order (study group [SG]); the other implant was left as a control (control group [CG]). For each patient, gallium aluminum-arsenide diode low-level laser (940-nm wavelength, 0.50 ± 2 mW output power, 0.004 cm2 spot size; Epic, Biolase, Inc, San Clemente, Calif) was applied around each implant with total delivered energy of 90 J (equally divided by 6 irradiation points) in 3 sessions. The application was done immediately after implant insertion, 3 days and 1 week after surgery. Implant stability (measured by Periotest) and marginal bone loss (MBL; measured by cone beam computerized tomography) were evaluated at implant loading (T1), 6 months (T6), and 12 months (T12). One implant failed in the CG and no failures occurred in the SG, resulting in 95% and 100% survival rates, respectively. The SG recorded higher Periotest values than the CG at all observation times. However, the difference was significant (P = .039) at T6 only. The SG recorded lower MBL values than the CG. No difference in MBL was detected between groups or peri-implant sites (mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual) at T6 and T12. Within the limits of this study, LLLI had no effect on marginal bone around immediately loaded small-diameter implants retaining overdentures in patients with moderately controlled diabetes. However, it was beneficial in improving implant stability 6 months after overdenture insertion.

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