The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bone quality, drilling technique, implant diameter, and implant length on insertion torque (IT) and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) of a prototype-tapered implant with knife-edge threads. The investigators hypothesized that IT would be affected by variations in bone quality and drilling protocol, whereas RFA would be less influenced by such variables. The investigators implemented an in vitro experiment in which a prototype implant was inserted with different testing conditions into rigid polyurethane foam blocks. The independent variables were: bone quality, drilling protocol, implant diameter, and implant length. Group A implants were inserted with a conventional drilling protocol, whereas Group B implants were inserted with an undersized drilling protocol. Values of IT and RFA were measured at implant installation. IT and RFA values were significantly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.54). A multivariable analysis showed a strong model. Higher IT values were associated with drilling protocol B vs A (mean difference: 71.7 Ncm), implant length (3.6 Ncm increase per mm in length), and substrate density (0.199 Ncm increase per mg/cm3 in density). Higher RFA values were associated with drilling protocol B vs A (mean difference: 3.9), implant length (1.0 increase per mm in length), and substrate density (0.032 increase per mg/cm3 in density). Implant diameter was not associated with RFA or IT. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, the results of this study suggest that the studied implant can achieve good level of primary stability in terms of IT and RFA. A strong correlation was found between values of IT and RFA. Both parameters are influenced by the drilling protocol, implant length, and substrate density. Further studies are required to investigate the clinical response in primary stability and marginal bone response.

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