This study aims to elucidate the biomechanical effects of combined loading of maxillary anterior and posterior implants using the sliding method on en-masse retraction of the anterior teeth and to quantify the loading ratio (LR) of anterior and posterior implants to achieve controlled retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth. A three-dimensional finite element model of the maxilla-upper dentition appliance was constructed. Implants were placed on the distal (A) and mesial (B) sides of the lateral incisors as well as on the mesial (C) side of the first molar and different amounts of force were loaded between the implants using 2- or 5-mm traction hooks. The labiolingual movement of the anterior teeth was recorded and the relationship between the LR of the implants and the movement of the central incisors was evaluated. With 2-mm traction hooks, the central incisors exhibited a translation tendency during retraction at lower A/C and B/C LR and labial or lingual crown inclination at higher values. With 5-mm traction hooks, the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canine teeth exhibited a labial crown inclination. The results of this study suggest that 2-mm traction hooks can cause labial crown inclination, translation tendency during retraction, or lingual crown inclination of the central incisors due to alterations in the LR of the anterior and posterior implants. The central incisors only exhibited labial crown inclination during combined loading of the anterior and posterior implants when 5-mm traction hooks were used.

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