Implants can be a treatment option when there is sufficient quantity and quality of bone to provide support for long-term success. In the reconstruction of defects, autogenous bone remains the gold standard for its osteogenic and compatibility properties. However, the disadvantage of secondary surgery and the associated donor site morbidity prompts researchers to develop the ideal bone substitute for optimum bone reconstruction. Parathyroid hormone (PTH1-34) has provided a new option for improvement in bone regeneration. This study used a pig model to evaluate the effectiveness of parathyroid hormone when added to a xenograft, Bio-Oss, in reconstructing mandible defects. Six domestic pigs were used to create 3 posterior mandibular defects measuring 2 × 1-cm bilaterally with a total of 36 defects to simulate tooth extraction sites in humans. The defects were grafted in random order and divided into 3 groups as follows: control (no graft), Bio-Oss without PTH, and Bio-Oss with PTH. Defects were assessed with cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT), micro computerized tomography (microCT), nanoindentation, and histology. Results showed that adding PTH1-34 significantly enhanced the graft construct. CBCT showed a significant increase in the degree of bone mineralization. Nanoindentation showed increased hardness of regenerated bone and accelerated bone mineralization with PTH. MicroCT analysis revealed a trend toward higher bone regeneration and mineralization. The histological analysis showed a positive trend of the increase in cortical bone thickness and mineral apposition rate. In conclusion, the local addition of PTH1-34 to a xenograft has shown promising results to enhance bone regeneration in the reconstruction of mandibular defects.

You do not currently have access to this content.