The aim of this study was to measure the convexity of the lateral wall of the maxillary (Mx) sinus and identify the locational distribution of antral septa in relation to the zygomaticomaxillary buttress (ZMB), in order to suggest another anatomical consideration and surgical modification of sinus floor elevation procedures. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, and a total of 134 patients and 161 sinuses containing edentulous alveolar ridges were analyzed. The angle between the anterior and lateral walls of the Mx sinus (lateral sinus angle [LSA]), and the angle between the midpalatal line and the anterior sinus wall (anterior sinus angle [ASA]) were measured. Mean LSAs and ASAs were 105.9° ± 9.86° and 58.4° ± 6.43°, respectively. No significant difference between left and right sides was found (LSA, P = .420; right = 105.5° ± 9.27°; left = 105.5° ± 9.27° and ASA, P = .564; right = 57.9° ± 6.80°; left = 58.8° ± 6.02°). The prevalence of septa was 37.3%, and it was most frequently noted in the second molar region (32.8%), followed by the first molar (20.9%), retromolar (16.4%), and second premolar regions (14.9%). Septa were most frequently located posterior to the ZMB (49.2%), while ZMB was mostly located in the first molar region (66.4%). Narrow LSAs may complicate the surgical approach to the posterior maxilla, especially when sinus elevation should be used in the second molar region. Considering the occasional presence of antral septa, membrane elevation may be complicated when a septum is encountered during the procedure. These results suggest that 3-dimensional examination of the convexity of the Mx sinus should be performed preoperatively to choose proper surgical techniques and minimize surgical complications.

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