The aim of this study was to compare bone regeneration in the anterior maxilla between bone substitutes and autologous platelet concentrate in alveolar ridge preservation. Forty patients requiring tooth extraction in the anterior maxilla were randomly allocated to the following 4 treatment modalities: spontaneous healing (control), natural bovine bone mineral covered with resorbable native collagen membrane (BBM/CM), freeze-dried bone allograft covered with resorbable native collagen membrane (FDBA/CM), and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) alone. Bone biopsies and histomorphometrical analysis were performed after 3 months of healing. The following parameters were assessed: newly formed mineralized tissue, newly formed nonmineralized tissue, and residual bone-grafting material (if applicable). Statistical analysis was performed to provide descriptive analysis and to compare the parameters of the bone regeneration between the study groups. Histomorphometrical analysis revealed the highest new mineralized tissue formation in the PRGF group. Statistically significant differences in new mineralized tissue formation were found between control/PRGF (46.4% ± 15.2% vs 75.5% ± 16.3%), control/(BBM/CM) (46.4% ± 15.2% vs 20.3% ± 21.9%), control/(FDBA/CM) (46.4% ± 15.2% vs 7.2% ± 8.6%), PRGF/(BBM/CM) (75.5% ± 16.3% vs 20.3% ± 21.9%), and PRGF/(FDBA/CM) (75.5% ± 16.3% vs 7.2% ± 8.6%) groups. The new mineralized tissue formation was in the following order: PRGF > control > BBM > FDBA. Alveolar ridge preservation in the esthetic zone with PRGF was the most effective for bone regeneration of the alveolar ridge.

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