The purpose of this nonrandom retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of perioperative antibiotic on early outcomes, including postoperative pain, swelling, bleeding, and cyanosis, in patients undergoing dental implant placement before prosthetic loading. Seventy-five patients (45 men, 30 women) who had completed dental implant placement were included in the study. Patients who used perioperative antibiotics comprised the experimental group, and those who did not comprised the control group. The experimental group received 2 g amoxicillin + clavulanic acid 1 hour before surgery and 1 g amoxicillin + clavulanic acid twice a day for 5 days after surgery. The control group received no perioperative antibiotic therapy. Data on pain, swelling, bleeding, cyanosis, flap dehiscence, suppuration, and implant failure were analyzed on postoperative days 2, 7, and 14 and at week 12. No statistically significant difference was detected between the 2 groups with regard to pain and swelling on postoperative days 2, 7, and 14 and week 12 (P > .05), while the severity of pain and swelling were greater on day 2 than on days 7 and 14 and week 12 in both groups (P = .001 and P < .05, respectively). Similarly, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups with regard to postoperative bleeding and cyanosis. Although flap dehiscence was more severe on day 7 in the experimental group, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups with regard to the percentage of flap dehiscence assessed at other time points. Within the limitations of the study, it has been demonstrated that antibiotic use has no effect on implant failure rates in dental implant surgery with a limited number of implants. We conclude that perioperative antibiotic use may not be required in straightforward implant placement procedures. Further randomized controlled clinical studies with more patients and implants are needed to substantiate our findings.

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