The main objective of this study was to compare the clinical and histological results of synthetic bone substitutes used in maxillary sinus floor augmentation. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases for studies of the success of endosseous dental implant, implant failure, peri-implant marginal bone loss, newly formed bone, and residual bone graft material. After the search, 10 randomized clinical trials were included, with 4 studies ranging from low to unclear risk of bias were used for meta-analysis, comparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and deproteinized bovine bone (DBB). A greater amount of residual graft material (mean difference [MD]: −4.80 mm; 95% CI: −9.35 to −0.26; P = .040) was found in the DBB group. No other statistically significant differences were found between BCP and DBB for the remaining outcomes. Our results suggested that BCP can be considered a suitable alternative to DBB in maxillary sinus floor augmentation due to its clinical and histological results.

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