Alveolar antral artery (AAA) damage can cause perioperative hemorrhage during osteotomy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of AAA presence and evaluate its characteristics using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). One hundred maxillary sinuses were evaluated from 70 CBCT scans. The anteroposterior dimension of each sinus was divided into four equal quarters, and the main artery presence was noted for each section. Arterial diameter as well as distance to sinus floor and to alveolar ridge were measured, and the position of the main artery according to its location relative to the lateral sinus wall was determined. In cases where additional arteries were detected, their diameter and position were also determined. Artery prevalence was 87.0%. In 42% and 8% of the cases respectively, a second and third artery were visualized. No significant association was found between the prevalence of the arteries and age of participants. However, the prevalence of a secondary artery among men (56.4%) was significantly higher than in women (32.8%) (P = .02). Moreover, the main artery diameter was significantly different between sections (P = .014), as was its position. AAA was radiographically detectable in the majority of studied sinuses. In 2 cases, 3 arteries were visible. Arteries with a diameter ≥ 2 mm were not frequent. However, arteries exceeding this diameter must be factored in when choosing surgical techniques. The findings of this study suggest there might be accessory arteries associated with AAA. Therefore, preoperative radiological CBCT examination is necessary prior to any sinus floor elevation surgery.

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